Supporting Literature

Supporting Literature
For the educator who questions certain ideals behind or even the frameworks and the process approach itself, the author directs you to reference list below. As well, educators who simply want to "learn more" about the processes described in their constituents, they are also strongly encouraged to check out the literature below as well.

List of References for a Process-Based Approach to Science

Abd-El-Khalick, F., & Lederman, N.G. (2000). Improving science teachers’ conceptions of the nature of science: A critical review of the literature. International Journal of Science Education, 22, 665–701.


Acedo, C. (2011). Training Tools for Curriculum Development. UNESCO-IBE. Retrieved July 15, 2011 from


Alsop, S., & Pedretti, E. (2001). Science, technology and society. In S. Alsop & K. Hicks (Eds.), Teaching science: A handbook for primary and secondary school teachers (pp. 193-205). London: Kogan.


Angell, M. (2004). The truth about the drug companies: How they deceive us and what

to do about it. New York: Random House.


Apple, M. W. & Beane, J. A. (1999). Lessons from democratic schools. In M. W. Apple & J. A. Beane (Eds.), Democratic schools: Lessons from the chalk face (pp. 118-123). Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.


Axelrod, P. (2000). What is to be done? Envisioning the university’s future. In J. L. Turk (Ed.), The corporate campus: Commercialization and the dangers to Canada’s colleges and universities (pp. 201–208). Toronto: James Lorimer.


Barinaga, M. (1993). Is there a “female style” in science? Science. 260. 384-391.


Beane, J. (1995). ‘Curriculum integration and the disciplines of knowledge’. Phi Delta Kappan, 76 (8), 616-626.


Bencze, L. (2006). Being Your Own Role Model for Improving Self-efficacy: An

Elementary Teacher Self-actualizes through Drama-Based Science Teaching. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 6 (3), 207-226.


Bencze, J. L. (2011). STEPWISE. OISE. University of Toronto. Retrieved July 15, 2011 from


Bencze, J. L., & Alsop, S. (2009).  A critical and creative inquiry into school science  inquiry. In W.-M. Roth & K. Tobin (Eds.), World of science education: North America (pp. 27-47). Rotterdam: Sense.


Bernstein, B. (1971) ‘On classification and framing of educational knowledge’, In M. F. D. Young (Ed.), Knowledge and control: New directions for the sociology of education. London: The Open University.


Bobbit, J. (1918). The Curriculum: a summary of the development concerning the theory of the curricula. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.


Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (Eds.). (1999). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18 (1), 32-42.


Bowen, A. (2011). Learning About Research, Technology, and the Nature of Science. Curry School of Education. Retrieved July 15, 2011 from


Buck, G., Leslie-Pelecky, D.,& Kirby, S. (2002). Bringing female scientists into the elementary classroom: Confronting the strength of elementary students' stereotypical images of scientists. Journal of Elementary Science Education, 14 (2), 1-10.


Carr, W. and Kemmis, S., (1985). Becoming Critical: Education, Knowledge and Action Research, Falmer Press: Brighton


Carter, C. (1990). Gender and equity issues in science classroom: Values and curricular discourse. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the More History and Philosophy of Science in Science Teaching. Proceedings of the First International Conference, Florida State University.


Collins, H.M. (1985). Changing order: Replications and induction in scientific practice. London, Sage.


Coover, H. W. (2000).  Discovery of Superglue Shows the Power of Pursuing the  Unexplained. Res. Techn. Management, 36-39.


Crawford, B. A. (2000). Embracing the Essence of Inquiry: New Roles for Science  Teachers. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37 (9), 916-937.


Crawford, B. A. (2007). Learning to teach science and inquiry in the rough and tumble of practice. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 44 (4), 613-642.


Cunningham, C.M. (1995). The effect of teachers' sociological understanding

of science on classroom practice and curriculum innovation (Doctoral

dissertation, Cornell University, 1995). Dissertation Abstracts

International, 56, 2542A.


Cunningham, C.,& Helms, J. (1998). Sociology of Science as a Means to a More Authentic, Inclusive Science Education.  Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 35 (5), 483-499.


Désautels, J., Fleury, S. C., & Garrison, J. (2002). The enactment of epistemological practice as subversive social action, the provocation of power, and anti-modernism, in W.-M. Roth & J. Désautels (Eds.), Science education as/for sociopolitical action. New York: Peter Lang.


Drake, S. M. (1998). Creating integrated curriculum: Proven ways to increase student learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.


Fanelli, D. (2010). Do Pressures to Publish Increase Scientists' Bias? An Empirical Support from US States Data. PLoS ONE 5(4): e10271. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010271


Gabbard, D. A. (2000). Introduction. In D. A. Gabbard (Ed.), Knowledge and power in the global economy: Politics and the rhetoric of school reform (pp. xiii–xxiii). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence-Erlbaum.


Gallagher, S. (1995). Implementing Problem-Based Learning in Science Classrooms. School Science and Mathematics, 95 (3), 136-146.


Giora, R. (1997). Discourse coherence and theory of relevance: Stumbling blocks in search of a unified theory. Journal of Pragmatics, 27 (1), 17-34.


Hargreaves, A. & Earl, L. (1990). Rights of passage: A review of selected research about schooling in the transition years. A report of a research project funded under contract by the Ministry of Education, Ontario, Canada.


Hargreaves, A., Earl, L., Moore, S., & Manning, S. (2001). Learning to change: Teaching beyond subjects and standards. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


Helms, J. V. (1998). Science and/in the community: Context and goals in practical work. International Journal of Science Education, 20, 643–653.


Henderson, R. R. & Landesman, E. M. (1995). Effects of thematically integrated mathematics instruction on students of Mexican descent. Journal of Educational Research, 88(5), 290-300.


Hicks, D. (1992). Instrumentation, interdisciplinary knowledge, and research performance in spin glass and superfluid helium three. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 17, 180-204.


Hirst, P. H. (1974.) Knowledge and the curriculum: A collection of philosophical papers. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.


Hirst, P.&, Peters, R. (1970). The logic of education. London: Routledge.


Hmelo, C.E., Holton, D.L., & Kolodner, J.L. (2000). Designing to learn about complex systems. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 9 (3), 247 - 298.


Hodson, D. (2003). Time for action: Science education for an alternative future. International Journal of Science Education, 25 (6), 645-670.


Houghton-Mifflin Company. (2011). Houghton-Mifflin Science. Houghton-Mifflin Company. Retrieved July 15, 2011 from


Hughes, G. (2000). Marginalization of Socioscientific Material in Science–Technology–Society Science Curricula: Some Implications for Gender Inclusivity and Curriculum Reform. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37 (5), 426-440.


Huntley, M.A. (1998). Design and implementation of a framework for defining integrated mathematics and science education. School Science and Mathematics, 98, 320–327.


Klassen, S. (2006). The Science Thought Experiment: How Might it be Used Profitably in the Classroom? Interchange, 37 (1-2), 77-96.


Kliebard, H. (1975). The Rise of Scientific Curriculum Making and Its Aftermath. Curriculum Theory Network, 5 (1), 27-39.


Knowledge Building Concepts Inc. (n.d.). Knowledge Forum.  Santa Cruz, California. Retrieved August 13, 2010 from


Kolodner, J. (2010). Project Based Inquiry Science Digging In. New York: It’s About Time Herff Jones Education Division.


Kolodner, J., Camp, P., Crismond, D., Fasse, B., Gray, J., Holbrook, J., Sadhana, P. &, Ryan, M. (2003). Problem-Based Learning Meets

Case-Based Reasoning in the Middle-School Science Classroom: Putting Learning by Design Into Practice. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 12 (4), 495-547,


Kolsto, S. (2007).Science education for democratic citizenship through the use of the history of science.Sci&Educ, 17, 977-997.


Kuhn, T. S. (1970). The structure of scientific revolutions (2nd edition).

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Lakatos, I. (1971). History of science and its rational reconstruction. In R. C. Buck & R. S. Cohen (Eds.), Philosophical Papers, Volume I (pp. 102-138). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Lakatos, I. & Feyerabend, P. (1999). For and against method (Motterlini, M., editor). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


Lederman, N. (1992). Students’ and Teachers’ Conceptions of the Nature of Science: A Review of the Research. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 29 (4), 331-359,


Lederman, N. G. (2006). Syntax of nature of science within inquiry and science instruction. In L.B. Flick & N. G. Lederman (Eds.), Scientific inquiry and nature of science: Implications for teaching, learning, and teacher education (pp. 301-318). Dordrecht: Springer.


Leonardo, Z. (2004). Theme Issue: Disciplinary Knowledge and Quality Education. Educational Researcher, 33 (5), 3-5.


Machlup, F. (1962). The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.


Matthews, M. (1994). Science teaching: the role of history and philosophy of science. New York: Routledge,.


Merton R (1942). The sociology of science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


Merton, R. (1970). Behavior Patterns of Scientists. Leonardo, 3, 213-220.


Miller, P.E. (1963). A comparison of the abilities of secondary teachers and

students of biology to understand science. Iowa Academy of Science, 70, 510-513.


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Pedretti, E. (1997). Septic tank crisis: a case study of science, technology and society education in an elementary school. International Journal of Science Education, 19 (10), 1211-1230.


Pedretti, E. (2006). The Role of Moral Reasoning on Socioscientific Issues and Discourse in Science Education. Science & Technology Library, 19, 219-239.


Pedretti, E. & Nazir, J. (2010). Currents in STSE Education: Mapping a Complex Field, Forty Years On. Under Review (Science Education).


Popper, K. R. (1963). Conjectures and refutations: The growth of scientific knowledge. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.


Rubba, P., & Andersen, H. (2006). Development of an instrument to assess secondary school students understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge. Science Education, 62 (4), 449-458.


Scardamalia, M. (2002). Collective cognitive responsibility for the advancement of knowledge. In Liberal education in a knowledge society, ed., Barry Smith. Chicago: Open Court.


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Shulman, L., & Sherin, M. G.  (2004). Fostering communities of teachers as learners: disciplinary perspectives. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 36 (2), 135-140.


Sidawi, M. (2007). Teaching science through designing technology. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 19, 269-287. 


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Singer, J., Marx, R.,& Krajcik, J. (2000). Constructing Extended Inquiry Projects: Curriculum Materials for Science Education Reform. Educational Psychologist, 35 (3), 165-178. SINGER, MARX, KRCAOJNCSIKT,R CULCATYIN CGH IANMQBUEIRRYS


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